Most importantly to start your adventuresome vacation in Turkey and/or Greece is to have your paperwork in order. You need a current passport, which is the most important travel document that you need for traveling abroad. This internationally recognized travel document verifys who you are and where your home country is and will allow you to return to that country. No matter if you are a first time traveler or a seasoned adventurer you still will have a much better chance of a great vacation if you prepare.
Check with your own countries requirements concerning obtaining a passport and visas. If you are taking a Mediterranean cruise the same visa requirements do not apply as to a traveler that is taking a multi-week/ or month vacation to Turkey or Greece. If American, go to one of the two authorized issuers of passports, the U.S. Department of State and/or the U.S. Embassies and Consulates.
FYI: Some countries will let you enter using only a birth certificate or a birth certificate and a valid driver’s license. Most foreign countries however require a valid passport to enter and leave. but all persons, including U.S. citizens, traveling by air, must present a valid passport to reenter the United States.
Travel 'within' Turkey: Once 'in' Turkey you may want to see so much that you will be taking convenient domestic flights to central places like Izmir, Antalya, Ankara etc. . Of course rental cars, buses and private tours - where the transportation is handled for you - are all options. You can easily book domestic flights on Pegasus Airlines, Sun Express, Turkish Airlines, Onur Air, Fly Air, and/or Atlas Jet.
Airlines to Turkey: The main air hub in Turkey is the Atatürk International Airport in Istanbul. From the US you can book with: Turkish Airlines that operates direct flights from Atlanta and New York, and Delta has direct flights from New York and Chicago. You can also book with US Airways and Continental.
Travel to Turkey by passenger ferry--from Italy, Greece, Cyprus and Russia. Since Turkey shares it's borders with 8 other countries, you can catch trains throughout Eruope ie: Budapest (40 hours), Bucharest (27 hours).
Trains, buses, rented cars - trains are often slower than buses, but if traveling great distances, it's a fun experience to sleep in the sleeping car berth. Buses tend to be the fastest way to travel from one city to another via land. Within cities, you can travel by taxi, rented car or motorcycle, or local minivans which can zip around traffic faster than the larger buses. Of course, if you are on a guided tour the transportation is taken care of by the tour operators.
Other interesting links: Fun facts about Greece to enjoy: http://www.archaeologous.com/blog/119/top-10-fun-facts-about-greece/ Top 10 things to see in Izmir:http://www.archaeologous.com/blog/129/top-10-things-to-do-izmir-by-archaeologous/ Packing tips from a seasoned traveler: http://www.archaeologous.com/blog/200/top-10-vacation-packing-tips-archaeologous/